As an electrical signal, the biosignal (BS) has two components: electrical potential or voltage and ionic or electronic currents (EC). The first component is sufficiently developed and does not require penetration into the substances of BS propagation. The marketable progress in transducing of the second component began when the necessary instrumentation for measurement of micro and nano dimensions had been created. The method of transducing the signal from the nerve impulses by the pickip coil (PC) wrapped around the nerve fibre was advanced long ago.The electrical properties of nanowire FETs integrated with the individual axons and dendrites has been reported, where each nanoscale junction can be used for spatially resolved, highly sensitive detection, stimulation, and/or inhibition of neuronal signal propagation. Arrays of nanowire-neuron junctions enable simultaneous measurement of the rate, amplitude, and shape of signals propagating along individual axons and wires.
The advantages of the technology in comparison to products that are already on the market are the highly sensitive transducing ability of the micro- and nanocurrents of the different nature as following: a) the sign of the output voltage permits the determination of the direction of the input current passing through a single SuFET device; b) the capability to regulate the proportion of nanowires, axons, neurons or currents that are being investigated to the untouched ones- either the whole cross section of the fibre or conductor, or any part of them; c) the possibility to substitute the SuFET device or to adjust its ratings to comply with the conditions of the measurement process without repeatedly destroying tissue or conductor; d) the transducer could create conversion in both directions, respectively in passive and active modes; e) the combination of biocompatibility and tissue equivalence in both the CNT and organic FETs makes them naturally fit for implantation.
The SuFET is used as a zero-resistance ammeter which converts drain currents into gate voltages. Transducing the vortical MF from the ECs (BSs) by the PC that is wrapped around the nerve fibre is executed when the PC is in nano dimension. The device transduce the electronic or ionic currents of the circuits and organisms respectively into the gate voltages. These currents are passing through CNT based channel of SuFET producing voltage on a gate; or these currents are passing through nanowired PC that connected to the SuFETs channel and this PC receiving the vortical magnetic fields (MFs) from the currents. Application variety of the novel superconducting, organic and CNT FETs allows us to design transducers of ECs (electronic, nerve, etc.) that transduce them into different quantities, including electric voltage, density of chemical and biomolecules. The product work under room-temperature conditions for CNT and nanowired PC and cryogenic conditions for a SuFET device.
The applications of the product are transducers of electric currents in the micro- and nanocircuits. Also is possible creating of an in vivo biosensor of the nerve signals, ionized molecules, synaptic neurocurrents. The reverse functioning of the transducer allow us to control these signals by the external data.The innovative aspects in relation to existing products are application of the nanoFETs in the reverse connection, passing the electrons and ions through CNT, connection PC to SuFET by the nanowires, vice versa control the biosignals by the artificial signals. A number of the sensing structures with the improved characteristics, as a result of the combination between flexible PCs and SuFETs, are being designed: a wide-band MF transducer with an ultimate sensitivity, non-contact passive flowmeters of the volume flow of substances and tissues, acoustical receiver/generator which employing Meissner effect, a scanning and sounding nano-microscop, and an EM transistor/memristor.
1. Patent UA №21185 "The method for measuring of a magnetic field strength and the magnetometer for its implementation", G01R 33/02; Bull. 1, 2000.
2.Patent UA №65546 "The method for measuring a volume flow of the liquids, gaseous, and friable substances and tissues with the counters for its implementation"; G01 F1/56, G01F 1/64, Bull. 4, 2004.
3. Patent UA №69377 "The method for displaying of the biocurrents and biosensor of the nerve impulses for its implementation": A61B 5/04, A61N 1/05; Bull. 9, 2004.
4. Patent UA №74533 "The method of receiving and generating of the acoustical oscillations and transducing devices of this oscillations on its basis- electrodynamical, noise absorbtional, and magnetometrical”: G10K 9/00, H04R 9/00, H04R 23/00, E04B 1/74; Bull. 1, 2006.
5. Patent UA №76691 "The control method of the electromagnetic flow intencity and amplifying elements on its basis”: H03F 7/00, H03K 17/51; Bull. 9, 2006.
For R&D and my salary in the equal parts